General Steps to Successful Freeze Drying

Moisture is ‘locked’ into the product by freezing in a separate freezer.

Freeze drying, also known as lyophilization, is widely regarded as a superior industrial drying and preservation method. By drying at lower pressure, boiling points are lowered which allows products to dried at lower temperatures compared to other methods. This reduces damage to the product and ensures cellular integrity is retained.

Perhaps the key benefit of freeze drying is that all cellular integrity is retained throughout the drying process. The only thing removed from the product is water. This means that products retain the following characteristics from when they're fresh to when they're dry:




Nutritional value





Other benefits include the fact that vitamins and enzymes remain intact, shipping weight is significantly reduced and shelf-life is extended to over 2 years, providing suitable packaging is used. Reconstitution (rehydration) is almost instantaneous when water is added to the dried product.

General steps to successful freeze drying are as follows:


Moisture is ‘locked’ into the product by freezing in a separate freezer.

NB: Difficult products can be frozen inside the Freeze Dryer. Shelf freezing reduces the shelf temperature in the chamber to -18°C or lower, but this adds to the processing time.


Product is placed into a chamber, which is evacuated to low pressure. As a guide, atmospheric (sea level) pressure is 1017mBar, and the chamber is evacuated to around 1mBar before drying begins.


Energy is then gradually applied to the product over a period of 20-24 hours, although this varies depending on the product and loading. This heat (energy) causes the ice to sublimate – that is transform from ice to vapour without passing through the liquid phase. The water vapour is then attracted to the lower temperature ice coil where it condenses as ice.

4. Pack

Product is removed and packed in air tight sealed bags to prevent rehydration

What can be dried using freeze drying equipment?Strictly speaking, anything can be freeze dried providing it contains water. Freeze drying is often used for food preservation and also for storing biologicals and pharmaceutical products. Examples include:

Vegetables, meat and fish

Fruits and juices

Aloe vera, echinacea, and neutraceuticals

Cultures for use in the dairy industry

Water damaged books and documents

Viruses and bacteria storage

If you would like any more information about freeze drying process, please do not hesitate to contact the professional Lyophilization Equipment manufacturer - GuanFeng by check below link:

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